Nutrition is becoming more and more important for everybody, this is especially true when we are considering professional sportsmen, but also normal people. They take care of their diet to improve performances or just increase their wellbeing.
Furthermore, with an accelerating pace of life and fierce social competition, fatigue has become a commonly occurring condition. It is wise looking for new nutritional solutions to limit physical exercise consequences and to struggle against fatigue. Actually, fatigue is a suboptimal health status and may be associated with various illnesses.
Repetitive and sustained physical labor results in fatigue, provoking systemic alterations, including endocrine, immune, and metabolic dysfunctions:
– Immunity has been shown to be compromised in athletes, making them more susceptible to Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Several studies have found salivary IgA to be decreased following bout of endurance exercise such as cycling, cross country skiing, running and swimming and also after shorter intense exercise (1, 2).
– Slight ischemia in the gut can damage mucosa and disrupt the mucosal barrier, resulting in increased permeability, and the resultant passage of pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharide, into the circulation (3,4).
– Cortisol level increases and it stimulates hepatic glucose release. Key signal for cortisol secretion is blood glucose decrease. Cortisol is also triggering an inflammation process through aspecific immune system as, for example, neutrophils degranulation.
– The innate immune system can also induce secondary muscle damage via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), further attenuating athletic performance (5, 6).
– Excess of lactic acid is generated and accumulated in skeletal muscles, leading to muscle fatigue.